Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, a PAH
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene belongs to the group polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) and consists of five benzene rings bound together. It is a yellow to green, solid substance with low solubility in water.1
There is no commercial production of benzo(g,h,i)perylene, with the exception of small-scale production for laboratory work.2
Sources and transportation pathways
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene and other PAHs are formed unintentionally during combustion. It is also present in fossil fuels and enters the environment during incomplete combustion in for example coke ovens and motor vehicles as well as through cigarette smoke and small-scale wood burning. PAHs are also emitted to the environment during forest fires and volcanic activity. One important transportation pathway is by air, where benzo(g,h,i)perylene occurs bound to particles. Emissions to water occur from wastewater treatment plants. In water, benzo(g,h,i)perylene binds to particles and sediments.3 Industrial operations, such as production and processing of metals, paper and wood product processing and operations within the energy sector, are important sources of PAHs.4
Use and spillage of products containing PAHs, for example fuel oil or fossil fuels, can lead to its presence in soil and water. Tyres containing high-aromatic oils (HA oils) contribute to the presence of PAHs in the environments through tyre wear as well as the recycling of tyres for manufacturing of rubber granulate that is used in artificial grass fields.5
Effects on environment and health
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene is very toxic to aquatic organisms and causes long-term effects.6 Exposure to combustion products such as soot and tar, which contain PAH to varying extents, can cause an increased risk of cancer.7
International agreements and regulations
The presence of benzo(g,h,i)perylene in products is for example regulated by the EU REACH regulation (EC 1907/2006). Benzo(g,h,i)perylene is regulated by the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC).
The EU E-PRTR regulation regulates how data on benzo(g,h,i)perylene emissions is made available.